It was attached to the Army of the Ohio and later to the Army of the Cumberland.By 1870, Oshkosh had become the third-largest city in Wisconsin, with a population of more than 12,000.52.2% were of German and 6.3% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.There were 24,082 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.3% were non-families. Route 45 travels north to New London, Wisconsin and travels south to Fond du Lac along Lake Winnebago.Oshkosh had six historic districts as of October 2011.They include the Algoma Boulevard, Irving/Church, North Main Street, Oshkosh State Normal School on the University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh campus, Paine Lumber Company, and Washington Avenue historic districts.Already designated as the county seat, Oshkosh was incorporated as a city in 1853. The lumber industry became well established as businessmen took advantage of navigable waterways to provide access to both markets and northern pineries.The 1859 arrival of rail transportation expanded the industry's ability to meet the demands of a rapidly growing construction market.
The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.95. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males. Oshkosh is also served by the GO Transit (formerly Oshkosh Transit System), which runs nine fixed-route bus routes throughout the city from AM until PM Monday through Saturday.The racial makeup of the city was 92.73% White, 2.19% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 3.03% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, and 0.98% from two or more races.1.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.Some area entrepreneurs and businessmen made their fortunes in the lumber industry.Many made significant contributions to the community, in both politics and supporting philanthropic organizations.