The proclaimed kingdom never exercised more than a marginal de facto sovereignty over a small area in present-day Chile, around a Mapuche town or tent camp called Perquenco.The efforts by Tounens to gain international recognition prompted an invasion by Chile, worried by the possibility of the establishment of a French protectorate in Araucanía.Entries in this list are governed with respect to their relevant succession laws, whether hereditary or elective.Prominent and reliably sourced claims made on a person's behalf are included regardless of whether that person stakes an active claim, provided that the person possesses a legitimate link to the line of succession.South Yemen later merged with its northern counterpart to form the modern state of Yemen in 1990.The German Empire was a federation of a score of smaller monarchies, all of which are now abolished under modern republican Germany although a handful never abdicated their titles.
Official recognition of hereditary royal entitlements and accompanying privy purses was abolished in the Republic of India through a constitutional amendment on 28 December 1971. In many cases, members of the former ruling families of princely states retain a considerable degree of political influence within their communities.
As a result, there are a large number of claimants to various German thrones.
Since the dissolution of the empire, however, a number of former royal households have become extinct in the male line, and are therefore not represented in the list below.
Mecklenburg–Schwerin became extinct in 2001, Saxe-Altenburg in 1991, and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen in 1971.
Until the mid-nineteenth century, the Italian peninsula comprised a number of states, some of which were monarchies.